Return list of all LinguisticField

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[
    {
        "id": 3,
        "name": "Morphology",
        "description": "<p>Morphology is the study of word formation. The analysis of word formation, and the positing of generative rules to govern word formation, held a central role in the Indian tradition. At least in part, this was likely due to the highly inflectional nature of Sanskrit. </p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Indian approach to morphology, originating with (the tradition that led to) Pāṇini and never challenged within India, is fundamentally a morpheme-based approach. It was by encountering the Indian approach to morphology that the notion of morphemes entered the Western tradition (see e.g. Alfieri 2014).</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-09-14T10:59:42.449593+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:33:54.127627+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-09-14T10:59:42.449279+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": [
            15
        ]
    },
    {
        "id": 5,
        "name": "Phonetics",
        "description": "<p>Phonetics is the study of linguistic sound in its physical aspects, articulatory and auditory/acoustic. Already by an early period, the phonetic analysis of Sanskrit had reached an advanced stage in India. Śikṣā, the name of the phonetic and phonological tradition, literally means ‘instruction’, possibly reflecting both its importance as the first stage of linguistic education, and its priority in the historical development of linguistic analysis. </p>\r\n\r\n<p>Surviving Śikṣā texts, which describe in detail the articulation of all Sanskrit sounds, are late, but must reflect a very early tradition, and evidence a sophisticated articulatory analysis. Famously, the Indian tradition accurately understood the articulatory process of voicing – i.e. vibration of the vocal chords – which was not understood in the Western tradition until the nineteenth century.</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:39:16.059891+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:39:16.059924+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:39:16.059668+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": []
    },
    {
        "id": 4,
        "name": "Phonology",
        "description": "<p>Phonology is the study of the (abstract) sound systems underlying the physical (articulatory and acoustic) aspects of speech. Phonology plays a central role in Pāṇini’s <i>Aṣṭādhyāyī</i>, which derives precise pronunciations from more abstract underlying representations. Alongside the tradition of Vyākaraṇa, the Prātiśākhyas, part of the Śikṣā tradition, display a similar, and perhaps slightly earlier, trend of phonological analysis.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the early period, phonological analysis as such does not play a major role in the Indian tradition, being taken as largely established. However, important principles of grammatical theorizing, such as theories of rule interaction, which depend in significant part on the phonological analysis of Pāṇini and the earlier tradition, remain a topic of debate (see Lowe 2021).</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:38:30.605077+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:38:30.605108+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:38:30.604866+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": [
            15
        ]
    },
    {
        "id": 6,
        "name": "Pragmatics",
        "description": "<p>Pragmatics is the study of meaning beyond the literal meaning of words and their composition into phrases and clauses, encompassing in very broad terms much of the ‘use’ of language in the real world. The distinction between the literal or essential meanings of words and their ‘use’ played a hugely important role in the semantic theorizing of the Indian tradition. The tradition distinguishes a number of relevant concepts, in particular: <i>śakti</i> ‘denotative power’, which determines the essential meaning of a word; <i>lakṣaṇā</i>, direct and conventional inferences based on the essential meaning; <i>vyañjanā</i>, metaphorical inferences or inferences based on social/cultural context; and <i>tātpārya</i>, the intention of the speaker. The distribution of the standard meanings/uses of words between <i>śakti</i> and <i>lakṣaṇā</i> is a particular area of controversy in the Indian tradition, and a common point of divergence between the linguistic theories of Vyākaraṇa and of other traditions like Nyāya and Mīmāṃsā.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The awareness of pragmatic issues had a significant impact on some other aspects of linguistic theorizing. For example, Bhartṛhari’s arguments against semantic compositionality in language, and thus against any real divisibility of linguistic units, is driven partly by concerns over the gulf between supposed literal meaning and actual use.</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:44:07.416346+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:44:07.416402+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:44:07.416005+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": [
            17
        ]
    },
    {
        "id": 2,
        "name": "Semantics",
        "description": "<p>Semantics is the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions, and more specifically the study of the literal meaning of linguistic expressions (in contrast with pragmatics, the study of the use of linguistic expressions going beyond their literal sense). The study of meaning has always held an important place in the Indian linguistic tradition, deriving from the original goal of linguistic analysis, the preservation and correct interpretation of the early Vedic texts.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The tradition of <i>nirvacana</i> or <i>nirukta</i> (Kahrs 1998) represents the earliest systematic attempt to study semantics in India, evolving from the earlier semantic speculations of the Vedic Brāhmaṇas. This was fundamentally a tradition of etymology, which nevertheless made important contributions to the development of linguistic thought. Yāska’s <i>Nirukta</i>, the only surviving primary text of the tradition, may slightly predate Pāṇini.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Two philosophical traditions, Mīmāṃsā (≈ritual exegesis) and Nyāya (logic), made important contributions to the study of linguistic meaning, beginning from perhaps the late first millennium BC. The concern of Mīmāṃsā was the correct interpretation of ritual injunctions in the Vedic texts, while Nyāya concerned itself with the structure of argumentation. Due to the importance of language to these traditions, they necessarily engaged with the linguistic theorizing of the tradition of Vyākaraṇa (grammar), and in certain respects diverged from it.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Although semantic concerns are relatively subordinated in Pāṇini, the influence of the interaction between the philosophical schools and vyākaraṇa can be identified already in Patañjali, and by the time of Bhartṛhari (c. 5th century AD) the grammatical tradition was beginning to systematize its own linguistic philosophy as a counter particularly to that of Mīmāṃsā. This flourishes in the later grammatical tradition, particularly in the works of Bhaṭṭojidīkṣita, Kauṇḍabhaṭṭa, and Nāgeśa, into a sophisticated integration of grammatical and semantic analysis across a range of topics in what might be broadly considered lexical and compositional semantics.</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-07-19T15:52:34.908111+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:32:16.803693+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-07-19T15:52:34.907792+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": [
            17,
            29,
            22,
            37,
            41,
            15,
            48
        ]
    },
    {
        "id": 1,
        "name": "Syntax",
        "description": "<p>The field of syntactic study focuses on the rules and principles governing the possible surface and abstract functional relations between words (and in non-lexicalist theories, parts of words) in constituting grammatical sentences or phrases in a given language, and in Language more generally. </p>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to the fairly fixed word order of English, a central concern in modern Western syntax has been the rules governing surface word order, and the relation between the underlying functional structure of a clause or phrase and its surface structure. In contrast, the Indian tradition has little to say on questions of word order (certainly in regard to the relative ordering of major clausal constituents), reflecting the highly flexible word order of Sanskrit. </p>\r\n\r\n<p>Perhaps the most important, and best known, contribution of the Indian tradition to the study of syntax is in relation to the theory of argument structure, that is of the rules governing the grammatical realization of the semantic arguments of predicates. But the Indian tradition addresses many other important syntactic issues. These are often in connection with morphological or semantic issues, but certain texts, such as those of the <i>samanvaya</i> tradition, deal directly with specifically syntactic topics.</p>",
        "admin_notes": "",
        "admin_published": true,
        "meta_created_datetime": "2021-07-19T15:52:26.667362+01:00",
        "meta_lastupdated_datetime": "2021-09-14T15:31:30.536592+01:00",
        "meta_firstpublished_datetime": "2021-07-19T15:52:26.667084+01:00",
        "meta_citation_author": null,
        "meta_created_by": 2,
        "meta_lastupdated_by": 2,
        "linguistic_field": [],
        "author": []
    }
]